New Mexico – Land of Enchantment – is the 47th state and entered the Union in 1912 it is crossed by the Rio Grande, which has its source in the State of Colorado and separates Texas from Mexico, to the South.
New Mexico lost in the desert, is a land of wide open spaces which offers landscapes of high mountains bathed in lakes in the North, vast plains to the East and large forests in the South with significant snowfall on the mountains. The territory enjoys bright sunshine throughout the year. The capital is Santa Fe.
The first inhabitants were hunters of the Stone Age, some 12,000 years ago.
Around 6000 BC they had developed rudimentary farming and lived in caves and other natural shelters.
Between 900 to 1300 BC, the great Anasazi civilization spread west of Chaco Canyon in the Northwest.
Santa Fe residents devised religions , developed and irrigated farms and indulged in some very precise astronomical calculations. Among the innumerable villages adobe – Pueblo – which sprang up along the Rio Grande, built by the Anasazi, remains the current Taos.
The first Spaniards arrived in New Mexico in 1539 and, not finding gold they undertook to colonize
the region in which they reduced the Indians into slavery and forcibly converted them to Christianism which caused the great Indian Revolt of 1680.
New Mexico is very rich thanks to its irrigated valleys it produces cotton, cereals and potatoes, livestock is also very important. New Mexico has significant oil and natural gas, copper and uranium, it is also at the center of scientific research in Los Alamo, where was designed the first atomic bomb.
Indian and Spanish cultures have succeeded in keeping New Mexico with a very strong identity,
giving the state a profound originality and being instrumental in the development of tourism.
From the beginning of the 20th century, the area became a mecca for painters.
Santa Fe and Taos are rich in historical sites: the Loretto Chapel (1878) was the first Gothic building in the West – Santa Fe Plaza, the oldest house in the United States – San Miguel Chapel (1625) the oldest church in the United States.